In the list below, the following codes are used to indicate audience/grade levels where this Teachnique, instructional tool, or item may be educationally suited:

P = Grades K-3 E = Elementary Grades 4-6 M = Middle School Grades 7-8
H = High School Grades 9-12 C = College or University I = Informal/Public Outreach
G = General Audiences



Using Kepler’s Harmony of the Worlds to show planetary distances, eccentricities, and more for the visually impaired with sound, and to create the sounds (notes and chords) for the non-impaired – 4 HCIG
Cultural Astronomy in Your Hometown – 6 IG
An Antikythera Replica for the Classroom – 6 HC

General Observing

Start the School Year with Some Observations – 8 EMHCIG
Just Look Up (What can you see with just your eyes) – 11 EMHCIG
Astrophotography with a Smartphone – 12 IG
(IAU-Shaw) What Can You Do With Spectra? (Matchbox Spectroscope) – 13 EMHCI


Eclipse Photography (and Out of Eclipse, too) – 3 G
What Color is the Sun? Or Any Other Star? – 9 EMHCG
Low Tech Ways to View the Sun – 12 EMHI

Solar System – General, Motions

Demonstrating Gravity on Other Worlds – 8 MHC
Using Jupiter to Demonstrate an Example of Kepler’s Third Law – 8 HC
Using the Calendar to Demonstrate Two Examples of Kepler’s Second Law; – 9 G
Programming Ozobots to Show Planetary Motions – 11 MHC
How Eccentric is Earth’s Orbit and Where is the Sun? (Misconceptions Check) – 13 C

Earth – The Planet and Its Motions

Determining Earth’s Size on Any Given Day – 2 HC
Earth’s Rotation Video, from its surface – 3 G
How the Earth Tilts (as seen from space) – 4 G
A Call to Join a Zooniverse Activity on CO2 effects on Mars and Earth – 4 G
LandSat Art – 5 GI
Teaching about No Planet B – 5 G
Observing Daily and Yearly Motions in the Sky – 11 PEMI
Low Tech Daytime Astronomy – Determining Earth’s Size; Sky Color and Sun’s Color – 12 MHI


A Flat Moon? (A Demonstration to Show if the Moon is Flat or Spherical – 10 HC
What the Moon’s South Pole Looks Like (NASA Video, Project Artemis) — 12 G
The November 19th Nearly Total, Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse – What Can You Do Educationally? – 13 HCIG
(IAU-Shaw) The Moon – 13 G


Rotating Potatoes (and light curves) – 6 HC
Rotato Redux! – 7 HC

Mars and its Probes

A Call to Join a Zooniverse Activity on CO2 effects on Mars and Earth – 4 G
A Tool For Comparing Mars and Earth – 8 G

Satellites and Space Telescopes

Webb Telescope – VR Program – 3 HCIG
NASA StarShade Origami for Home Use – 7 G

Telescopes, Earth Based

Virtual Radio Observatory Tours – 3 G
Virtual Goddard Tours – 10 G
Astronomy Remotely (Column) – 1. Remote Observing, Generally – 11 G
Astronomy Remotely – Observing with iTelescope, Part 1 – 13 G


Hubble’s Field Guide to Nebulae – 13 IG

Stars, General

Brightness, Color, Location – 1 G
Estimating Star Distances with a Light Bulb – 9 HC
Sound of a Supernova’s Structure – 10 IG
Teaching Activities Using Stellarium – 10 MHCG
Additional Exercises and Resources Using Stellarium – 10 MHCG

Stars with Exoplanets

Kepler’s Harmony of the Worlds adapted to Exoplanetary Systems–How many can you hear? – 5 G

Extraterrestrials and Life Elsewhere

NASA’s CoLD protocol for announcing Life and ETs – 12 HCG

The Milky Way

When is the Milky Way not a Candy Bar? – 2 G


Educational Design Framework for a Web‑Based Interface to Visualise Authentic Cosmological ‘Big Data’ in High School – 8
(IAU-Shaw) What Can You Do With Spectra? (Hubble Expansion with Elastic Tape) – 13

Other Sciences and Society

Art and Science

Life on a Pale RED Dot (Using Infrared Photography to Simulate Life on planets around M Dwarf stars) – 6 HCG


Physics for the Masses: Teaching Einsteinian Gravity in Primary School – 10 EMH

Editorial and Comments

Cosmos + 41 (How far have we come in Astro Ed, and Not) – 11


Teaching Techniques

Tactile Printing. Not Just for the Blind Anymore -2
Active Learning Basics – 2
Words, and How You Show Them, Matter -3
Tell Me a Story, Professor!  The use of historical stories in Physics (and Astronomy) – 4
Advice for External Teachers – 6
Virtual Primary Schooling Advice–Get Up and Dance! – 6 PE
Science Outreach with Seniors – 6 I
COVID-19 Precautions for Public Astronomy Education Sessions – 9 I


How College Planetariums are Used; – 7 C
Periodicity and Change: Talking about Time Inside the Planetarium Dome – 10

Calls for Assistance

An Imaging Tool for Color Impaired Students Needs Testers – 5
Testing Rubin Observatory Activities – 10

General – Miscellaneous

IAU’s Official List of Astronomy’s Connections to Other Human Endeavors – 4
The Gateway Science: a Review of Astronomy in the OECD School Curricula,
Including China and South Africa – 10


Global Astronomy Month – 1
Inspire Girls During World Space Week – 10


Next Generation Science Standards in Astronomy, Part 1 – General Description – 4
Next Generation Science Standards in Astronomy, Part 2 – The Whole Course, and Mistakes – 5
Next Generation Science Standards in Astronomy, Part 3 – Some Physics – 6
Next Generation Science Standards in Astronomy, Part 4 – The Paradigms of Skills – 7
Next Generation Science Standards in Astronomy, Part 5 – The Missing Matters – 8

Teachers’ Understandings

Understanding of Teachers on Phases of the Moon and the Lunar Eclipse – 8

Link Collections

Dr. Andrew Fraknoi’s List of Free Astro Labs – 9 G


Knowledge of Sun and Star motions – 1
MOOCs – 1
QuaRCS – 3
Motivations and Attitudes of Attendees at Public Science Event Observing Sessions – 4 I
What works better for vocabulary? VR, 360 Annotated, or 2D? – 5
Science Center Visitors’ Interactions with Exhibits – 5 I
Observing Diaries for Astro 101 Classes – 7 C
Don’t Use That Clicker, Hand Me a Laser! Huh? – 12 C
How Eccentric is Earth’s Orbit and Where is the Sun? (Misconceptions Check) – 13 HCG